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The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the [British] South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection. Opposition and labor strikes in 2003 were unsuccessful in pressuring MUGABE to retire early; security forces continued their brutal repression of regime opponents. The ruling ZANU-PF party used fraud and intimidation to win a two-thirds majority in the March 2005 parliamentary election, allowing it to amend the constitution at will and recreate the Senate, which had been abolished in the late 1980s. In April 2005, Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition, according to UN estimates. ZANU-PF announced in December 2006 that they would seek to extend MUGABE's term in office until 2010 when presidential and parliamentary elections would be "harmonized."

Languages & Population

Approximate Population: 12,311,143 (July 2007 est.)

Nationality (Noun): Zimbabwean(s)

Nationality (Adjective): Zimbabwean

Official Language(s): English

Major Languages Spoken: English, Chichewa, Ndebele

Map of Zimbabwe

Country Facts

Country Name (long form): Republic of Zimbabwe

Country Name (short form): Zimbabwe

Country Name (local long form): none

Country Name (local short form): none

Name of Capital: Harare

UTC Time Difference (from capital): UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Countries Near by, and Bordering Zimbabwe: Zambia, Mozambique, South Africa, Botswana

Land Area: 386670 sq km

Water Area: 3910 sq km

Comparative Area: slightly larger than Montana

Total Land Boundry: 3,066 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

National Holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

International Phone Code: 263

Currency Code: Zimbabwean dollar (ZWD)

Internet Country Code: .zw

US Embassy Location: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare

US Embassy Mailing Address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare


Zimbabwe flag

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