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Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years. After which, a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly 2 million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. As of late 2006, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope, and has brought instability to eastern Chad, and Sudanese incursions into the Central African Republic. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

Languages & Population

Approximate Population: 39,379,358

Nationality (Noun): Sudanese (singular and plural)

Nationality (Adjective): Sudanese

Official Language(s): Arabic

Major Languages Spoken: Arabic, English

Map of Sudan

Country Facts

Country Name (long form): Republic of the Sudan

Country Name (short form): Sudan

Country Name (local long form): Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

Country Name (local short form): As-Sudan

Name of Capital: Khartoum

UTC Time Difference (from capital): UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Countries Near by, and Bordering Sudan: Uganda, Kenya, Libya, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo Dem. Rep. of, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia

Land Area: 2376000 sq km

Water Area: 129810 sq km

Comparative Area: slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US

Total Land Boundry: 7,687 km

Coastline: 853 km

National Holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

International Phone Code: 249

Currency Code: Sudanese dinar (SDD)

Internet Country Code: .sd

US Embassy Location: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum

US Embassy Mailing Address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829


Sudan flag

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